Journal of the
Korean Mathematical Society

ISSN(Print) 0304-9914 ISSN(Online) 2234-3008

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  • 2023-09-01

    Almost universal sums of triangular numbers with one exception

    Jangwon Ju

    Abstract : For an arbitrary integer $x$, an integer of the form $T(x)\!=\!\frac{x^2+x}{2}$ is called a triangular number. Let $\alpha_1,\dots,\alpha_k$ be positive integers. A sum $\Delta_{\alpha_1,\dots,\alpha_k}(x_1,\dots,x_k)=\alpha_1 T(x_1)+\cdots+\alpha_k T(x_k)$ of triangular numbers is said to be {\it almost universal with one exception} if the Diophantine equation $\Delta_{\alpha_1,\dots,\alpha_k}(x_1,\dots,x_k)=n$ has an integer solution $(x_1,\dots,x_k)\in\mathbb{Z}^k$ for any nonnegative integer $n$ except a single one. In this article, we classify all almost universal sums of triangular numbers with one exception. Furthermore, we provide an effective criterion on almost universality with one exception of an arbitrary sum of triangular numbers, which is a generalization of ``15-theorem" of Conway, Miller, and Schneeberger.

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  • 2023-07-01

    Complex reflection groups and K3 surfaces II. The groups ${\boldsymbol{G_{29}}}$, ${\boldsymbol{G_{30}}}$ and ${\boldsymbol{G_{31}}}$

    Cédric Bonnafé, Alessandra Sarti

    Abstract : We study some K3 surfaces obtained as minimal resolutions of quotients of subgroups of special reflection groups. Some of these were already studied in a previous paper by W.~Barth and the second author. We give here an easy proof that these are K3 surfaces, give equations in weighted projective space and describe their geometry.

  • 2023-01-01

    Minimal polynomial dynamics on the $p$-adic integers

    Sangtae Jeong

    Abstract : In this paper, we present a method of characterizing minimal polynomials on the ring ${\mathbf Z}_p$ of $p$-adic integers in terms of their coefficients for an arbitrary prime $p$. We first revisit and provide alternative proofs of the known minimality criteria given by Larin [11] for $p=2$ and Durand and Paccaut [6] for $p=3$, and then we show that for any prime $p\geq 5,$ the proposed method enables us to classify all possible minimal polynomials on ${\mathbf Z}_p$ in terms of their coefficients, provided that two prescribed prerequisites for minimality are satisfied.

  • 2022-07-01

    The moduli spaces of Lorentzian left-invariant metrics on three-dimensional unimodular simply connected Lie groups

    Mohamed Boucetta, Abdelmounaim Chakkar

    Abstract : Let $\mathrm{G}$ be an arbitrary, connected, simply connected and unimodular Lie group of dimension $3$. On the space $\mathfrak{M}(\mathrm{G})$ of left-invariant Lorentzian metrics on $\mathrm{G}$, there exists a natural action of the group ${\rm Aut}(\mathrm{G})$ of automorphisms of $\mathrm{G}$, so it yields an equivalence relation $\backsimeq$ on $\mathfrak{M}(\mathrm{G})$, in the following way: $h_1\backsimeq h_2 \Leftrightarrow h_2=\phi^{*}(h_1) \;\textrm{for some}\; \phi \in {\rm Aut}(\mathrm{G}).$ In this paper a procedure to compute the orbit space ${\rm Aut}(\mathrm{G})/\mathfrak{M}(\mathrm{G})$ (so called moduli space of $\mathfrak{M}(\mathrm{G})$) is given.

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  • 2022-09-01

    Matrices similar to centrosymmetric matrices

    Benjamín A. Itzá-Ortiz, Rubén A. Martínez-Avendaño

    Abstract : In this paper we give conditions on a matrix which guarantee that it is similar to a centrosymmetric matrix. We use this conditions to show that some $4 \times 4$ and $6 \times 6$ Toeplitz matrices are similar to centrosymmetric matrices. Furthermore, we give conditions for a matrix to be similar to a matrix which has a centrosymmetric principal submatrix, and conditions under which a matrix can be dilated to a matrix similar to a centrosymmetric matrix.

  • 2022-05-01

    Birkhoff's ergodic theorems in terms of weighted inductive means

    Byoung Jin Choi, Jae Hun Kim

    Abstract : In this paper, we study the Birkhoff's ergodic theorem on geodesic metric spaces, especially on Hadamard spaces, using the notion of weighted inductive means. Also, we study a deterministic weighted sequence for the weighted Birkhoff's ergodic theorem in Hadamard spaces.

  • 2023-09-01

    Li-Yau gradient estimates on closed manifolds under Bakry-\'Emery Ricci curvature conditions

    Xing Yu Song, Ling Wu

    Abstract : In this paper, motivated by the work of Q.~S.~Zhang in [25], we derive optimal Li-Yau gradient bounds for positive solutions of the $f$-heat equation on closed manifolds with Bakry-\'Emery Ricci curvature bounded below.

  • 2023-01-01

    Minimal surface system in Euclidean four-space

    Hojoo Lee

    Abstract : We construct generalized Cauchy-Riemann equations of the first order for a pair of two $\mathbb{R}$-valued functions to deform a minimal graph in ${\mathbb{R}}^{3}$ to the one parameter family of the two dimensional minimal graphs in ${\mathbb{R}}^{4}$. We construct the two parameter family of minimal graphs in ${\mathbb{R}}^{4}$, which include catenoids, helicoids, planes in ${\mathbb{R}}^{3}$, and complex logarithmic graphs in ${\mathbb{C}}^{2}$. We present higher codimensional generalizations of Scherk's periodic minimal surfaces.

  • 2023-09-01

    Forbidden theta graph, bounded spectral radius and size of non-bipartite graphs

    Shuchao Li, Wanting Sun, Wei Wei

    Abstract : Zhai and Lin recently proved that if $G$ is an $n$-vertex connected $\theta(1, 2, r+1)$-free graph, then for odd $r$ and $n \geqslant 10r$, or for even $r$ and $n \geqslant 7r$, one has $\rho(G) \le \sqrt{\lfloor\frac{n^2}{4}\rfloor}$, and equality holds if and only if $G$ is $K_{\lceil\frac{n}{2}\rceil, \lfloor\frac{n}{2}\rfloor}$. In this paper, for large enough $n$, we prove a sharp upper bound for the spectral radius in an $n$-vertex $H$-free non-bipartite graph, where $H$ is $\theta(1, 2, 3)$ or $\theta(1, 2, 4)$, and we characterize all the extremal graphs. Furthermore, for $n \geqslant 137$, we determine the maximum number of edges in an $n$-vertex $\theta(1, 2, 4)$-free non-bipartite graph and characterize the unique extremal graph.

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  • 2023-07-01

    Generalized hexagons embedded in metasymplectic spaces

    Sebastian Petit, Hendrik Van Maldeghem

    Abstract : We consider thick generalized hexagons fully embedded in metasymplectic spaces, and we show that such an embedding either happens in a point residue (giving rise to a full embedding inside a dual polar space of rank 3), or happens inside a symplecton (giving rise to a full embedding in a polar space of rank 3), or is isometric (that is, point pairs of the hexagon have the same mutual position whether viewed in the hexagon or in the metasymplectic space--these mutual positions are \emph{equality, collinearity, being special, opposition}). In the isometric case, we show that the hexagon is always a Moufang hexagon, its little projective group is induced by the collineation group of the metasymplectic space, and the metasymplectic space itself admits central collineations (hence, in symbols, it is of type $\mathsf{F_{4,1}}$). We allow non-thick metasymplectic spaces without non-thick lines and obtain a full classification of the isometric embeddings in this case.

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March, 2024
Vol.61 No.2

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