Journal of the
Korean Mathematical Society

ISSN(Print) 0304-9914 ISSN(Online) 2234-3008



J. Korean Math. Soc. 2023; 60(1): 91-113

Online first article December 14, 2022      Printed January 1, 2023

Copyright © The Korean Mathematical Society.

Cross-intercalates and geometry of short extreme points in the Latin polytope of degree 3

Bokhee Im, Jonathan D. H. Smith

Chonnam National University; Iowa State University


The polytope of tristochastic tensors of degree three, the Latin polytope, has two kinds of extreme points. Those that are at a maximum distance from the barycenter of the polytope correspond to Latin squares. The remaining extreme points are said to be short. The aim of the paper is to determine the geometry of these short extreme points, as they relate to the Latin squares. The paper adapts the Latin square notion of an intercalate to yield the new concept of a cross-intercalate between two Latin squares. Cross-intercalates of pairs of orthogonal Latin squares of degree three are used to produce the short extreme points of the degree three Latin polytope. The pairs of orthogonal Latin squares fall into two classes, described as parallel and reversed, each forming an orbit under the isotopy group. In the inverse direction, we show that each short extreme point of the Latin polytope determines four pairs of orthogonal Latin squares, two parallel and two reversed.

Keywords: Birkhoff polytope, Latin polytope, extreme point, MOLS, intercalate

MSC numbers: Primary 05B15; Secondary 15B51, 20N05, 52B12

Supported by: The first author was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A3B05029924).

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